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Application Notes

X-ray µCT provides nondestructive, high-resolution 3D imaging for research and industrial applications
X-ray computed microtomography uses high-resolution, widedynamic- range CCD cameras, high-resolution scintillators, either synchrotron x-ray sources or microfocus x-ray tubes, and software algorithms designed to reconstruct 3D images.

Deeply Cooled, Scientific InGaAs Cameras Facilitate NIR-II / SWIR Imaging for Drug Discovery / Small-Animal Research
The Utilization of Materials Such as SWNTs, Rare-earth–doped Phosphors, and Quantum Dots in Concert with Deeply Cooled, Scientific InGaAs Cameras Holds Great Promise for the Future of In Vivo Optical Iimaging Applications in the NIR-II / SWIR Range

Real-Time Imaging of Singlet Oxygen via Innovative Microspectroscopy Instrument
New Two-Dimensional InGaAs Detector Thermoelectrically Cooled to –85°C Facilitates Scientific Research

Ultra-High-Sensitivity, Deeply Cooled InGaAs Cameras for Ground-Based Astronomy in the NIR-II / SWIR
Ground-based observations in the J and H astronomical bands can be improved by utilizing scientific InGaAs cameras from Princeton Instruments.

High-Harmonic Generation (HHG) and High-Sensitivity, High-Speed Scientific Cameras for Applications in the Soft X-ray Energy Regime
X-ray experimental setups for individual labs continue to evolve and gain popularity...selecting the right application-appropriate camera will be imperative to capitalize fully on the benefits of these new setups

Low-Frequency Raman Spectra of Amino Acids Measured with an Astigmatism-Free Schmidt-Czerny-Turner Spectrograph: Discovery of a Second Fingerprint Region
Low-Frequency Raman Spectra of Amino Acids Measured with an Astigmatism-Free Schmidt-Czerny-Turner Spectrograph: Discovery of a Second Fingerprint Region

NIR Spectroscopy Aids in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Brain Injury
Over the past several years, biomedical researchers and engineers working in labs, hospitals, and universities around the world have developed an extensive set of spectroscopy-based methods — including a new class of noninvasive in vivo techniques utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) — to facilitate the rapid and accurate detection and diagnosis of disease and injury.

Scientific NIR-II/ SWIR Cameras Enable Femtosecond Frequency Comb Vernier Spectroscopy
New, Deeply Cooled InGaAs Cameras Provide Ultrahigh Sensitivity for Key Spectral Range

Ultrafast ICCD Cameras Enable New Three-Pulse Ballistic Imaging Technique for Studying Temporal Evolution of Turbulent, Steady Sprays
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden demonstrated a threepulse configuration for time-gated ballistic imaging (BI) applied to a turbulent, steady spray; this technique, which utilizes a pair of ultrafast scientific ICCD cameras, permits the acquisition of time-correlated image data.

Aberration-Free Spectrographs and NIR-Sensitive InGaAs Cameras Facilitate the Development of Carbon Nanotube Optical Sensors for Early Disease Detection
Dr. Daniel Heller and his research group at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer center utilized the IsoPlane 320 spectrograph and NIRvana SWIR camera in their recent research.

High-Sensitivity, Large-Format CCD Camera -Enable Multidimensional Characterization of Soil-Grown Root Systems
GLO-Roots employs luminescence-based reporters and a pair of Princeton Instruments back-illuminated CCD cameras to enable studies of root architecture and gene expression patterns in soil-grown, light-shielded roots. Custom-designed image analysis algorithms allow the spatial integration of soil properties, gene expression, and root system architecture traits.

Advanced CCD Cameras and Imaging Spectrographs Facilitate Acquisition of Novel Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy Data To Improve SERS Biosensors
Accurate characterization of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) biosensors, fluorescent dye molecules that hold great promise for in vivo bioanalyte detection, can often be quite difficult as the overwhelming isoenergetic fluorescence signal typically makes it challenging to measure resonance Raman cross-sections for the molecules. To overcome this obstacle, researchers at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis recently utilized etalonbased femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), a technique designed to acquire a stimulated Raman signal without strong fluorescence or interference from signals resulting from other four-wave mixing pathway

Novel Time-Resolved FLIM Measurements Method
Enabled by the New Picosecond Gating Technology of the PI-MAX®4 ICCD Camera and the RLD Processing Algorithm

Acquiring and processing Raman spectral data for the C2-D stretching vibration of 2 deuterated histidine
Because of histidine’s importance and unique functionality, we wanted to map out the probe group’s sensitivity to allow for its general use in protein related research.

Ultra-High-Sensitivity emICCD Cameras Enable Diamond Quantum Dynamics Research
The PI-MAX4:512EM emICCD camera… deliver[s] quantitative, ultra-high-sensitivity performance for applications executed on nano- and picosecond timescales.

High-Accuracy LIBS with Nanosecond and Picosecond Time Resolution Enabled by Ultrasensitive emICCD Technology
This note explains how the improved performance of the PIMAX4:1024EMB emICCD camera used in concert with an echelle spectrometer (LTB ARYELLE 200) delivers ultrahigh sensitivity for demanding LIBS applications on the nanosecond and picosecond timescales.

Ultra-High-Sensitivity emICCD Cameras Facilitate Use of Trapped Ions for Quantum Research.
The PI-MAX4:1024EMB emICCD camera… deliver[s] quantitative, ultra-high-sensitivity performance for applications executed on nano- and picosecond timescales.

Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS)
Researchers: Samuel Berweger and Prof. Markus Raschke – Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry, and JILA, University of Colorado at Boulder used Princeton Instruments' camera and spectrograph for their research.

Solar cell inspection via photoluminescence imaging in the NIR/SWIR
Scientific-grade, deep-cooled, large-format InGaAs FPA cameras such as the NIRvana from Princeton Instruments will enable researchers to observe photoluminescence emission at longer wavelengths and rapidly obtain more detailed information about defects within multicrystalline silicon solar cells.

Using Raman Spectroscopy to Detect Malignant Changes in Tissues
Accurate, rapid and non-invasive detection and diagnosis of malignant disease in tissues is an important goal of biomedical research. Optical methods, such as diffuse reflectance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, have all been investigated as ways to attain this goal.

< 500 Picosecond Gating Augments Studies of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets
The application note provides an overview of non-thermal APPJ experimental setups for single-jet and multiple-jet studies in addition to the newest relevant imaging technology. Learn how this application was enabled by the PI-MAX 4: 1024i ICCD.

Is There Really Cool Gas in the Middle of the Sun?
Researchers Judd Johnson and Shadia Habbal from the University of Hawaii used two PIXIS:1024BR cameras to observe the total solar eclipse on March 9, 2007 in Libya.

Ultra-High-Speed, Time-Resolved Spontaneous Raman Scattering Spectroscopy in Combustion
The recent use of a new diagnostic apparatus to measure the dynamics of each individual molecular species, as opposed to simply acquire bulk information (e.g., pressure), points to the possibility of performing temperature and frequency analyses of species in combustion.

Wide-Field, Frequency-Domain FLIM Measurements Made Simple
Learn more about how this application was enabled by the PI-MAX 4 1024i RF ICCD camera, allowing researchers to perform these wide-field measurements with unprecedented ease in terms of intensifier modulation and instrument synchronization, as well as with minimal external equipment.

This note describes several examples of XPCS in which high-performance CCD systems from Princeton Instruments can be used to capture microscopic, low x-ray-flux images.

Low-frequency Raman Spectra of Carbon Nanotubes Measured with an Astigmatism-free Schmidt-Czerny-Turner Spectrograph
An IsoPlane has been interfaced to a low frequency Raman module that enables measurement of peaks with Raman shifts as low as 10 cm-1 using only a single stage spectrograph.

Dynamic Neutron Radiography
Novel (3D) Neutron Imaging technique for nondestructive testing made possible by large-area, intensified CCD camera system

Cherenkov Emission Imaging and Spectroscopy Utilizing Isotopes and a Linear Accelerator
The inability to image Cherenkov radiation in a conventional radiation treatment environment where room light is on raises significant concern for patient and physician compliance; however, the intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system presented here offers a better solution.

Imaging of Shock-Induced Deformation in Condensed Matter
Ultrasensitive ICCD Camera Enables the Study of Rapidly Evolving Material Deformation in Extreme Environments

Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence To Study Plasma Turbulence
The successful development and optimization of fusion power sources will depend largely upon learning more about plasma turbulence and its relation to transport.

X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging
Early-stage tumors and associated vascularization can be visualized via x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

Scientific NIR-II-SWIR Cameras for Advanced Imaging and Spectroscopy Applications
NIRvana InGaAs cameras are ideal for many leading-edge NIR-II / SWIR applications, including semiconductor failure analysis, solar cell inspection, nondestructive testing, astronomy, small animal imaging, and singlet oxygen detection.

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