X-ray Plasma Diagnostics
During the ionization process of hot and dense plasmas, the radiation emitted consists of a broad continuum of bremsstrahlung – radiation caused from the deflection of a decelerated charged particle by another charged particle. Within the plasma, free-electrons interact with other ions, producing bremsstrahlung radiation showing narrow-line emissions of bound-bound transitions in the ions of various charge stages.
Hot and dense plasmas are of enormous interest in basic physics research because of the multitude of interesting phenomena that arise from them. Such plasmas are of great technological and industrial importance in areas such as laser fusion, EUV, and soft x-rays. Owing to their high energy concentration, these plasmas tend to involve rapid expansions, thus sharpening gradients in density and other parameters.
Cameras for X-Ray Plasma Diagnostics
High-temperature plasmas common within astronomy and nuclear-fusion produce soft x-rays, useful for plasma characterization.
With a wide selection of CCDs, the PIXIS XO can directly detect the widest range of x-rays, from 30 eV to 20 keV, for ultimate diagnostic flexibility. The ultra-high-vacuum-seal design further enhances the flexibility of the PIXIS XO, with software-selectable gains and readout speeds.
Thermoelectric cooling minimizes noise, enhancing plasma signal resolution to ensure accurate diagnostics.
X-ray plasma diagnostics is of interest due to the wide range of phenomena which occur during plasma formation. This means that all information is key, requiring high frame rates to ensure no information is lost. The PI-MTE3 offers in-vacuum detection of x-rays at high frame rates to capture dynamic plasma events.
With large format, deep-cooled CCDs, the PI-MTE is highly sensitive over the 10 eV – 30 keV range, ideal for direct detection of soft x-rays produced from heat induced plasmas.
X-ray plasma diagnostics are dependent on the sample, so flexibility within experimental set-up is required. The SOPHIA-XO offers high frame rates with multiple port readouts to offer this flexibility.
With excellent >95% QE over the energy range 5 eV – 30 keV, and large sensor formats, the SOPHIA-XO is optimal for direct x-ray diffraction detection within this range.
The SOPHIA-XO offers low read noise for high resolution x-ray plasma diagnostic studies, improving separation between spectral peaks.