X-ray spectroscopy is element-specific, used to directly examine a wide variety of solid and liquid samples non-destructively. The high-energy x-rays irradiate the sample and are absorbed by atoms within the sample. As absorption is discrete, the absorption energy required corresponds to the binding energy of the electron in the material. Once absorbed, the electron is ejected, allowing it to interact with the surrounding atoms to produce a spectrum.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy is commonly divided into two spectral regions:
- X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectral region
- Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region
Cameras for X-Ray Spectroscopy
X-ray spectroscopy encompasses a wide range of x-ray energies, all which require high resolution and sensitivity to obtain all chemical composition information. The PIXIS XO offers excellent resolution and sensitivity over the wide energy range of 30 eV – 20 keV.
The PIXIS XO comes with a wide selection of CCDs without antireflective coating for ultimate experimental flexibility. The ultra-high-vacuum-seal design further enhances the flexibility of the PIXIS XO, with software-selectable gains and readout speeds.
High frame rates can be important when using x-ray spectroscopy, dependent on the sample. The PI-MTE3 is able to offer in-vacuum detection of x-rays at high frame rates to ensure that no information is lost.
With large format, deep-cooled CCDs, the PI-MTE is highly sensitive over the 10 eV – 30 keV range, ideal for direct detection of any signal produced from x-rays in this range.
As the signal produced is dependent on the sample being irradiated, low noise is essential for accurate acquisition. The PI-MTE3 is liquid cooled, resulting in low dark current over long integration times.
X-ray spectroscopy is sample dependent, so requires high quantum efficiency and experimental flexibility. The SOPHIA-XO offers excellent >95% quantum efficiency over the large energy range 5 eV – 30 keV, with high frame rates and multiple port readouts.
To ensure all x-ray signal is captured, the SOPHIA-XO comes with large sensor formats available either as a 2k x 2k or a 4k x 4k. The SOPHIA-XO also offers low read noise for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy studies, ensuring a reduction in overlapping peaks.
Spectrometers for X-Ray Spectroscopy
X-ray spectroscopy is a technique which requires ultimate precision. The TriVista offers superb resolution, and excellent imaging alongside stray light suppression. As x-ray spectroscopy is an analytical technique, any stray light present will compromise signal and effect results.
The TriVista is a set of three spectrometers comprised of the SpectraPro family spectrometers. This offers high flexibility without reducing performance, operating from 200 – 2200 nm.